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Deel 2c De R.K.Kerk en de 'Bedrijfsongevallen'

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The study of sexual abuse of minors by Catholic priests and deacons resulting in this report was authorized and paid for by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) pursuant to the Charter for the Protection of Children and Young People (Charter) adopted by the USCCB at its June 2002 meeting. The Charter called for many responses to this victimization of minors within the Catholic Church. Article 9 of the Charter provided for the creation of a lay body, the National Review Board, which was mandated (among other things) to commission a descriptive study of the nature and scope of the problem of child sexual abuse in the Catholic Church.

Accordingly, the Board approached John Jay College of Criminal Justice to conduct such a study. The College assembled an experienced team of researchers with expertise in the areas of forensic psychology, criminology, and human behavior, and, working with the Board, formulated a methodology to address the study mandate. Data collection commenced in March 2003, and ended in February 2004. The information contained in this report is based upon surveys provided by 195 dioceses and eparchies of the United Statesand its territories, representing 97% all diocesan priests in the United States, and 142 religiouscommunities, representing approximately 64% of religious communities and 83% of all religious priests.

The mandate for the study was to:

1. Examine the number and nature of allegations of sexual abuse of minors under the age of 18 by Catholic priests between 1950 and 2002.

2. Collect information about the alleged abusers, including official status in the church, age, number of victims, responses by the church and legal authorities to the allegations of abuse, and other characteristics of the alleged abusers.

3. Collect information about the characteristics of the alleged victims, the nature of their relationship to the alleged abusers, the nature of the abuse, and the time frame within which the allegations are reported.

4. Accumulate information about the financial impact of the abuse on the Church.

Three surveys provide the data for this study:

1. A profile of each diocese, providing information about characteristics of the diocese including region and size, the total numbers of allegations, and the total expenditures occasioned by allegations of abuse.

2. A survey of church records relating to individual priests against whom allegations of abuse had been made.

3. A survey of church records relating to the alleged victims of abuse and the nature of the alleged abuse.

Based upon the inquiries and communications that we received from the dioceses, eparchies and religious communities, it is our impression that, despite the complexity of the surveys and the difficulties of identifying relevant church records, these data reflect a conscientious and good-faith effort to provide exhaustive and reliable information regarding allegations of abuse made to church authorities.

Due to the sensitive nature of the abuse allegations, which form the core of this report, many steps were taken to assure the anonymity of alleged victims and priests who were the subjects of the study. The study used a double-blind procedure in which all reports were first sent to Ernst & Young, an accounting firm, where they were stripped of information that could be used to identify the area from which they were sent. Ernst & Young then sent the unopened envelopes containing survey responses to the John Jay researchers. The data set is thus stripped of all identifying information that may be linked to an individual diocese, eparchy or religious community, priest or victim.



• Priest surveys asked for birth dates and initials of the accused priests in order to determine if a single priest had allegations in multiple dioceses, eparchies or religious communities. To maintain anonymity, this information was encrypted into a unique identifying number, and birthdays and initials were then discarded. We detected 310 matching encrypted numbers, accounting for 143 priests with allegations in more than one diocese, eparchy or religious community (3.3% of the total number of priests with allegations). When we removed the replicated files of priests who have allegations in more than one place, we received allegations of sexual abuse against a total of 4,392 priests that were not withdrawn or known to be false for the period 1950-2002.

• The total number of priests with allegations of abuse in our survey is 4, 392. The percentage of all priests with allegations of sexual abuse is difficult to derive because there is no definitive number of priests who were active between the years of 1950 and 2002. We used two sets of numbers to estimate the total number of active priests and estimated this percentage against whom allegations were made.

o We asked each diocese, eparchy and community for their total number of active priests in this time period. Adding up all their responses, there were 109,694 priests reported by dioceses, eparchies and religious communities to have served in their ecclesiastical ministry from 1950-2002. Using this number, 4.0% of all priests active between 1950 and 2002 had allegations of abuse.

o The Center for Applied Research in the Apostolate (CARA) reports a total of 94,607 priests for the period 1960-2002. When we look at the time period covered by the CARA database, the number of priests with allegations of sexual abuse is 4,127. Thus, the percentage of priests accused for this time period is 4.36% if we rely on the CARA figures assessing the total number of priests.

o If we examine the differences between diocesan and religious priests, then our numbers result in a total of 4.3% of diocesan priests with allegations of abuse and 2.5% of religious priests with allegations of abuse. The CARA numbers yield a total of 5% of diocesan priests from 1960-2002 with allegations of abuse and 2.7% of religious priests from 1960-2002 with allegations of abuse.

• Our analyses revealed little variability in the rates of alleged abuse across regions of the Catholic Church in the U.S.—the range was from 3% to 6% of priests.

• A total of 10,667 individuals made allegations of child sexual abuse by priests. Of those who alleged abuse, the file contained information that 17.2% of them had siblings who were also allegedly abused.

• It is impossible to determine from our surveys what percent of all actual cases of abuse that occurred between 1950 and 2002 have been reported to the Church and are therefore in our dataset. Allegations of child sexual abuse are made gradually over an extended time period and it is likely that further allegations will be made with respect to recent time periods covered in our surveys. Less than 13% of allegations were made in the year in which the abuse allegedly began, and more than 25% of the allegations were made more than 30 years after the alleged abuse began.


• The distribution of reported cases by the year the abuse is alleged to have occurred or begun shows a peak in the year 1970. However, considering the duration of some repeated abusive acts, more abuse occurred in the 1970s than any other decade, peaking in 1980. But, these conclusions have to be qualified because additional allegations for those time periods may surface in the future.

• Alleged abuse sometimes extended over many years. In 38.4% of allegations the abuse is alleged to have occurred within a single year, in 21.8% the alleged abuse lasted more than a year but less than 2 years, in 28% between 2 and 4 years, in 10.2% between 5 and 9 years and, in under 1%, 10 or more years.

• Approximately one-third of all allegations were reported in 2002-2003, and two-thirds have been made since 1993. Thus, prior to 1993, one-third of cases were known to Church officials. The allegations made in 1993 and 2002-2003 include offenses that allegedly occurred within the full time period from 1950-1993 and 1950-2002. The distribution of allegations made in 2002-2003 resembles the distribution of offenses alleged at all other time periods—with the exception that allegations of abuse in recent years are a smaller share of all allegations.


• The amount of money already paid by the Church, as a result of allegations, to victims, for the treatment of priests and for legal expenses reported in our surveys was over $572,000,000. That figure is not the total paid by the Church to date—14% of dioceses and religious communities did not report dollar figures. In addition, survey responses were filed over a 10-month period and would not include settlements and expenses incurred after surveys were submitted. In addition, no diocese reported the recent and highly publicized $85,000,000 settlement.



• The majority of priests with allegations of abuse were ordained between 1950 and 1979 (68%). Priests ordained prior to 1950 accounted for 21.3% of the allegations, and priests ordained after 1979 accounted for 10.7% of allegations.

• Over 71% of these priests were between 25 and 29 years of age when ordained. For priests whose age at the time of the first alleged abuse was reported, the largest group—over 40% was between 30 and 39. An additional 20% were under age 30, nearly 23% were between 40 and 49, and nearly 17% were over 50.

• At the time abuse is alleged to have occurred, 42.3% of priests were associate pastors, 25.1% were pastors, 10.5% were resident priests and 7.1% were teachers. Other categories (e.g., chaplain, deacon, and seminary administrator) were under 3% each.

• The majority of priests (56%) were alleged to have abused one victim, nearly 27% were alleged to have abused two or three victims, nearly 14% were alleged to have abused four to nine victims and 3.4% were alleged to have abused more than ten victims. The 149 priests (3.4%) who had more than ten allegations of abuse were allegedly responsible for abusing 2960 victims, thus accounting for 26% of allegations. Therefore, a very small percentage of accused priests are responsible for a substantial percentage of the allegations.

• Though priests’ personnel files contain limited information on their own childhood victimization and their substance and/or alcohol abuse problems, the surveys report that nearly 7% of priests had been physically, sexually and/or emotionally abused as children. The surveys also indicate that nearly 19% had alcohol or substance abuse problems. There are indications that some sort of intervention was undertaken by church authorities in over 80% of the cases involving substance abuse.

• The surveys indicate that 23% of priests who were subject to allegations of sexual abuse were also recognized as having other behavioral or psychological problems.


• The largest group of alleged victims (50.9%) was between the ages of 11 and 14, 27.3% were 15-17, 16% were 8-10 and nearly 6% were under age 7. Overall, 81% of victims were male and 19% female. Male victims tended to be older than female victims. Over 40% of all victims were males between the ages of 11 and 14.

• Nearly 40% of priests with allegations of sexual abuse participated in treatment programs; the most common treatment programs were sex-offender specific treatment programs specifically for clergy and one-on-one psychological counseling. The more allegations a priest had, the more likely he was to participate in treatment. However, the severity of the alleged offense did not have an effect on whether or not a priest participated in a treatment program. Those who allegedly committed acts of penetration or oral sex were no more likely to participate in treatment than priests accused of less severe offenses.

• Priests allegedly committed acts which were classified into more than 20 categories. The most frequent acts allegedly committed were: touching under the victim's clothes (57.3%), touching over the victim’s clothing (56.8%), victim disrobed (27.5%), cleric performing oral sex (27.3%) and penile penetration or attempted penile penetration (25.1%). Many of the abusers were alleged to have committed multiple types of abuse against individual victims, and relatively few priests committed only the most minor acts. Of the 73.4% of the incidents reported in which we had specific offense details, no incidents were reported that included only verbal abuse or pornography. Only 9.0% of the acts included exclusively touching over the victim’s clothes.

• The alleged abuse occurred in a variety of locations. The abuse is alleged to have occurred in the following locations: in the priest’s home or the parish residence (40.9%), in the church (16.3%), in the victim’s home (12.4%), in a vacation house (10.3%), in school (10.3%), and in a car (9.8%). The abuse allegedly occurred in other sites, such as church outings or in a hotel room, in less than 10% of the allegations. The most common event or setting in which the abuse occurred was during a social event (20.4%), during travel (17.8%), or while visiting or working at the priest’s home (14.7%). Abuse allegedly occurred in other settings, such as during counseling, school hours, and sporting events, in less than 10% of the allegations.

• In the 51% of cases where information was provided, half of the victims who made allegations of sexual abuse (2621, or 25.6% of all alleged victims) socialized with the priest outside of church. Of those who did socialize with the priests who allegedly abused them, the majority had interactions in the family’s home. Other places of socialization included in the church, in the residence of the priest, and in various church activities.


• To date, the police have been contacted over 600 priests with allegations of abuse, or 14% of our total. Nearly all of these reports have led to investigations, and approximately 220 instances have led to criminal charges. Of the 217 priests for whom information about dispositions is available, 138 (63.5%) were convicted and at least 100 of those served time in prison. Thus, 3% of all priests against whom allegations were made were convicted and about 2% received prison sentences to date.

• Half of the allegations that were made were reported to the church by the victim. In one-fifth of the cases, the allegation of sexual abuse was made by thealleged victim’s attorney. The third most common way in which the abuse was reported was by the parent or guardian of the victim (about 14%). Allegations made by other individuals, such as by a police officer, a sibling, or another priest, occurred in much smaller numbers. These allegations were most commonly made by calling the diocese (30.2%), in a signed letter to the diocese (22.8%), or in a legal filing (10.5%). All other methods by which the allegations were made, such as in person, by telling a trusted priest, or through the media, occurred in less than 10% of cases. Cases reported in 2002 had a similar distribution of types of reporting as in previous years.

The full report contains more detailed and additional analyses related to the information provided above. This report is descriptive in nature. Future reports will examine the relationships among the variables described here in more detail.


Half of the incidents of abuse were reported by individuals who experienced the victimization. Attorneys reported one in five incidents, followed by family members, who reported approximately 17%.


According to the information in the Church’s files, approximately 14% of priests accused of abuse were reported to the police, and some were independently detected.


Overall, 5.4% percent of priests were charged with a criminal offense. Although this is 35% of those cases in which a police investigation was carried out, it also means that only 3.1% of all priests were convicted of some type of criminal offense.

Het rapport is tot stand gekomen op verzoek van de Amerikaanse bisschoppen en het netwerk van door priesters misbruikte personen( SNAP), vindt de cijfers aan de lage kant.


Naast het rapport: National study of sex abuse by priests verscheen er nog een rapport http://www.usccb.org/nrb/nrbstudy/nrbreport.pdf

The second report was “A Report on the Crisis in the Catholic Church in the United States.”(2) This report set out to evaluate the causes and context of the sexual abuse crisis within the American Catholic Church.

The study found that there were significant problems in relation to how candidates for the priesthood were selected and trained.

However, the stinging criticism is reserved for the Bishops and church officials who are singled out for their shortcomings. These included

1) failure to grasp the severity of the problem;

2) an inadequate response to victims;

3) unwarranted presumptions in favour of accused priests;

4) a reliance on secrecy and undue emphasis on the avoidance of scandal;

5) an over reliance on psychiatrists, psychologists and lawyers;

6) an undue reliance on legal advice that promoted an adversarial defence at the expense of concern for victims;

7) a failure to hold themselves and other Bishops accountable for mistakes.

However, the report also went on to say that the Bishops’ actions in recent times have ensured an increased safety of minors in the Church today. These included the establishment of stringent reporting policies from 2002 and the removal of seven hundred priests from ministry since their enactment; the implementation of safe environment policies which train adults to recognize the signs of abuse and children to report it. Finally the Bishops’ “Zero tolerance” policy, which specifies that no priest who has sexually abused a minor will continue in ministry.

The report welcomed these measures as being positive and proactive. However, it went on to say that in order for the American Bishops goal of restoring “the bonds of trust that bind us” to be achieved there should be a process that involves transparency and substantial participation by the laity. With reference to the “Zero tolerance” policy, the review board argued that this measure is essential for the laity to fully trust the church leadership.

Zie voor het hele rapport: http://www.usccb.org/nrb/nrbstudy/nrbreport.pdf

Een belangrijk onderdeel van het rapport gaat over de mogelijke achtergronden van het voorkomen van seksueel misbruik van minderjarigen onder de priesters

pagina 66 en volgende

Het is duidelijk dat sommige mannen gezien over de laatste 50 jaar priester werden die eigenlijk nooit tot het seminarie hadden mogen worden toegelaten en nooit had moeten worden toegestaan hun opleiding tot priester te voltooien

Er zijn een aantal redenen aan te wijzen waarom sommigen in de Kerk in het verleden jonge mannen en jongens toelieten in seminaries die daar eigenlijk niet thuis hoorden.

1) Een reden was dat seminaries er simpel van uit gingen dat niemand die seksueel disfunctioneerde de roeping tot het priesterschap niet zou kunnen volgen.

2) Een andere reden voor de toename van ongeschikte kandidaten was de enorme toeloop zodat de seminaries gedurende de 50-tiger jaren er simpelweg niet toe kwamen de kandidaten te screnen.

3) Een aantal ervan wilden zelfs geen priester worden maar onder druk van de familie werd men het toch.

4) Nadat duizenden priesters hun ambt verlieten en trouwden kregen priesters het idee dat het priesterschap voor hen op psychologische gronden niet voor hen was weggelegd.

5) De leeftijd van kandidaten voor het priesterschap speelde ook een rol. Veel kandidaten kwamen op 13 - of 14 - jarige leeftijd naar het seminarie. Veel ondervraagden waren van mening dat de gesloten cultuur van het seminarie er toe leidde dat ze sociaal en psychologisch zich niet goed konden ontwikkelen. Sommige van deze individuen, hoewel reeds in hun twintiger jaren, hadden de emotionele trekken van een adolescent. Het gemis van een "normale" psychoseksuele ontwikkeling moet sommige van deze priesters hebben gehinderd in het bereiken van een "healthy celibacy" en zou kunnen verklaren waarom sommigen van hen het gezelschap zochten van adolecente jongeren.

6) Veel ondervraagden waren van mening dat priesters die zich schuldig hadden gemaakt aan misbruik psychologisch en emotioneel niet juist waren ontwikkeld

Hoewel uit de cijfers van National study of sex abuse by priests blijkt dat het percentage van diegenen die zich schuldig hadden gemaakt aan seksueel misbruik wordt gesteld op 4,36% blijft de vraag bestaan of dat cijfer wel klopt.

Het is opvallend dat het bisdom Boston, waar de storm als eerste begon, in een persbericht van 27 februari 2004 melding maakt van een percentage van 7%

Diocese gives abuse data

Report finds 162 Boston priests accused since '50

By Michael Paulson, Globe Staff, 2/27/2004

The Archdiocese of Boston yesterday said that 7 percent of its priests were accused of abusing minors from 1950 to 2003, a figure that appears to be substantially higher than the percentage in many other dioceses around the nation. After more than two years of disclosures in newspaper articles, court documents, and a sweeping report by the state attorney general, the archdiocese for the firsttime offered its own report on the scope of abuse by priests in the 144 cities and towns that make up the archdiocese. The archdiocese said that 162, or 7 percent, of 2,324 archdiocesan priests were accused of abusing 815 minors during the 53-year period examined. An additional 57 priests and deacons, most of them priests affiliated with a religious order, but some ordained by other dioceses and stationed in Boston, were accused of abusing 150 minors in the archdiocese during that same period. "We've been aware that the numbers were high here ever since the attorney general's report . . . [but] it's still alarming and sad to see that they are so high," Archbishop Sean P. O'Malley said in an interview. "One case of child abuse is a tragedy, but certainly these kinds of figures are very disturbing." The archdiocese also disclosed that it had spent $120.6 million through December 2003 settling abuse cases. O'Malley believes that most settlement costs are now complete, but said the archdiocese is still paying for a variety of abuse-related costs, including therapy for more than 400 people. O'Malley said he hopes the church has now taken steps to prevent future abuse. He said he believes the screening, training, and supervision of seminarians have improved, that 6,000 church employees and volunteers have gone through criminal background checks and abuse-detection training, and that the church has a better understanding of how to spot and respond to abuse allegations. "I do want to reassure Catholics that the archdiocese is trying to do everything we can so that this tragedy does not ever happen again," he said. The vast majority of allegations involved abuse that took place before 1982, the archdiocese said in its report, though most of the abuse wasn't reported until after January 2002, when the Globe began publishing a Spotlight series on the church's handling of abusive priests. The archdiocese said only eight priests ordained since 1980 have been accused of abuse; more of the allegedly abusive priests were ordained in the 1960s than in any other decade. The archdiocese chose to release the numbers yesterday, in anticipation of today's release of two nationwide studies examining the scope, nature, and causes of sexual abuse of minors by Catholic clergy since 1950. The studies, which are being overseen by a National Review Board of laypeople chosen by the US Conference of Catholic Bishops, showed that about 4 percent of the nation's Catholic priests were accused of abuse during the period studied. The Diocese of Yakima, Wash., said the national study found that 4,392 of the 109,694 clergy faced allegations of abuse, the Associated Press reported. Since 1950, dioceses nationwide received 10,667 abuse claims; of those, 6,700 were substantiated. Another 3,300 were not investigated, because the accused were dead, and 1,000 claims proved to be unsubstantiated, the diocese said. The national report also tallied abuse-related costs at $533.4 million. O'Malley said he did not know why the percentage of allegedly abusive priests was higher in Boston than in other places, a question that is likely to concern researchers for some time. "This percentage is much higher than . . . expected," said Stephen J. Pope, a theology professor at Boston College. "Some commentators have tried to contextualize the incidents of clerical sexual abuse by asserting that [the abuse rate] is lower than that of the general population, but this report shows this claim to be false, at least for Boston." The archdiocese said seven priests accounted for more than half of the 815 abuse allegations against archdiocesan priests. They declined to name those seven priests, but the most prominent alleged serial abusers were the Revs. John J. Geoghan, Paul R. Shanley, and Joseph E. Birmingham. The Rev. Joseph M. Hennessey, pastor of St. Joseph Church in Kingston, said he believes that well-intentioned church values, "when taken to an extreme, may have contributed to the generally poor handling of abuse complaints." "These values are confidentiality, protection of reputation, avoidance of giving unnecessary scandal, presumption of innocence until guilt proven, due process," he said. "When taken together, and taken to an extreme, and out of context from the horror of the content of the accusations, they resulted in what seems to the outsider a climate of protection." The Boston numbers were received with a mix of reactions around the region. Attorney General Thomas F. Reilly said the number of victims in the archdiocesan report seems low to him, but that "I don't think we'll ever know the full extent of victims, because of the reluctance of people to come forward. The numbers have to be higher." In July, he released a report on abuse in the archdiocese, saying that over six decades, at least 237 priests and 13 other church employees were accused of molesting at least 789 minors and that the actual number of victims probably exceeded 1,000. His study looked at 10 more years than the archdiocese. "This report confirms what we said, and it confirms the magnitude of this problem," he said. "This problem is bigger than this archdiocese. Tomorrow's report in Washington will show that what we're talking about here is more than 4,000 criminals, most of whom, like here in Boston, escaped prosecution of the coverup by the church leadership." Victim advocates were skeptical of the numbers, because, they said, they do not trust bishops to be truthful. "It's suspect, as all self-reporting is; it's severe underreporting," said Anne Barrett Doyle, a cofounder of the Coalition of Catholics and Survivors. Doyle said she believes the report understates the number of victims and abusers. She wondered whether the archdiocesan files on which the report is based are complete. She said victims will ask Governor Mitt Romney Sunday to scrutinize the state's four Catholic dioceses. She said victims' groups want the dioceses to release a complete list of names of abusive priests, saying that "Archbishop O'Malley and the other bishops are sitting on the longest list of unregistered sex offenders in Massachusetts." "They need to step forward and make sure children aren't being harmed," she said. Roderick MacLeish Jr., a lawyer who has represented victims, said the archdiocese's figures on victims numbers were "ridiculously low," while Mitchell Garabedian, another prominent victims' lawyer, called the numbers "an insult to victims." "We had two major settlements in the last two years, exceeding 650 victims, so their victim total makes no sense," he said. "You're talking about an institution that allowed the wholesale sexual abuse of children by priests. Why would anyone think they would produce credible numbers?" MacLeish called on the archdiocese to release the names of all accused priests, as Baltimore and Los Angeles have done, saying that many victims have not yet come forward and suggesting that the release of names would spur those victims to do so. An archdiocesan spokesman, the Rev. Christopher J. Coyne, said the archdiocese strictly followed the guidelines set out by the John Jay College of Criminal Justice, which conducted the national study, in determining how to count allegations. He said every allegation was reported. The allegations ranged from a kiss or a touch to rape. He said every allegation, substantiated or not, received by the archdiocese was included in the report. Coyne said that, unlike some other dioceses, Boston decided not to report what percentage of allegations it deemed credible, because "we don't have a handle on that right now." About two dozen priests who have been suspended have not yet been fully evaluated by the church. The report also indicates that 58 of the 162 accused archdiocesan priests are dead, and dioceses have generally not investigated accusations against deceased priests. The Rev. Robert W. Bullock, the president of the Boston Priests Forum, called the numbers "staggering" and said "it's a higher percentage than I thought." But he said priests have confidence in O'Malley's management of the clergy sex abuse crisis. James E. Post, the president of Voice of the Faithful, a lay organization, said, "This is the bitter harvest that we have reaped from a clerical culture that was dominant in Boston throughout this era. Looking at this, I believe any reasonable person would say that culture is dysfunctional, and has to change."Kevin Cullen of the Globe staff contributed to this report. Michael Paulson can be reached at Dit e-mailadres wordt beveiligd tegen spambots. JavaScript dient ingeschakeld te zijn om het te bekijken. Dit e-mailadres is beschermd tegen spambots. U heeft JavaScript nodig om het te kunnen zien..

Gebruikte bronnen RK Kerk en de “bedrijfsongevallen deel 2

Seksueel Misbruik door priesters in de Verenigde Staten

Anteuneus: Spotprent bisschoppen 06-05-02 Boston Globe: Overzicht Bisschoppen die aftraden in de VS Dossier misbruik RK Kerk

Boston Globe A history of secrecy, coverups in Boston Archdiocese

Cagle Daryl: Spotprent bisschop met hoofd in het zand

John Jay College of Criminal Justice: “National study of sex abuse by priests”februari 2004

Min van Justitie/nl/nieuwsarchief) Aartsbisdom Boston verborg beschuldigde priesters 06-12-02

Paulson Michael: Diocese gives abuse data Report finds 162 Boston priests accused since '50

Redactie NRC Houding leiders kerk 22-03-02 Report on the Crisis in the Catholic Church in the United States: National Revue Board for the Protection of Children and Young People mei 2004 Sipe Richard A.W.:” VIEW FROM THE EYE OF THE STORM “National Conventie in Louisville, Kentucky, February 23, 2003

SNAP: Survivers Network of those Abuse by Priests documenten

dit is het einde van deel 2

De R.K.Kerk en de “Bedrijfsongevallen” Seksualiteit en een geestelijke ambt